The Christian school (section on correction), the Therapudic Crisis Intervention (TCI) and the Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI) have similar purpose but have different method, approach, and strategies of programs.
As previously predicted, the need for crisis intervention has only increased because of the high number of crisis situations, our world has been more in need of crisis intervention than ever before. (Robert, A. 2000).
The term crisis generally evokes an image of any one of a number of every negative life events. Floods, fires, earthquake and rapes. By their very nature, may involve situations of life-threatening proportions. The pictures and experiences of the victims of these disasters strike a chord within all of us. A crisis may however, also relate to circumstances or experiences that threaten one’s home, family, property, or sense of well-being. A psychological crisis may involve a loss or threat of a loss or a radical change in one’s relationship with some significant other (Goldenbg, 1983).
Crisis intervention theory and practice were designed to address the exact characteristics of the crisis situation. It is a dynamic form of treatment that focuses on a wide range of phenomena that affect an individual’s, families, or group’s stability. Although it includes elements specific to its own model, it has been referred to and used as an essentially electric approach (Fischer, 1978). Obviously, models of brief psychotherapy have been the treatment of choice in crisis settings. There are several models of brief psychotherapy, however, they all maintain the common goal of removing and alleviating specific symptoms in a timely fashion. The intervention may lead to some personality reconstruction, but this is not considered a primary goal. (Aguilera, 1990).
The therapeutic crisis intervention (TCI) used cognitive therapy approach for those sexually abuse and they applied five stages of crisis intervention. While the CPI uses classical relapse prevention principles to the treatment of sex offenders in which psychiatric treatment generally followed one of two mutually exclusive models. The application of this treatment shifted the focus of work with sex offenders onto behavior. It emphasized that offenders are responsible for and capable of controlling their actions. For CPI this model not only had the advantage of defining clear treatment targets that could be measured, but it was also demonstrably effective(Nagayama Hall, 1995).Meanwhile, TCI approach, the patient can come to therapy and have the therapist do their coping for them. The utilization of cognitive therapy techniques in crisis intervention offers advantages both to patients in their ability to receive help and to therapists in their ability to offer help. The patient often feels powerless to change his/her circumstances or unmotivated to problem-solve and reason a solution. By working collaboratively and actively to identify cognitive distortions and automatic thoughts and to suggest alternatives, the therapist can provide patients with some hope for resolving their seemingly insoluble difficulties. The cognitive-behavioral therapy is attractive because most of the concepts of cognitive and behavior therapy are consistent with commonly shared notions of human nature, the neophyte therapist can readily assimilate them (Beck, 1976).
All programs (TCI, CPI) share the common goal of eliminating further sexual abuse. They also agree that the offender needs to take responsibility for his actions. Although all of the programs strive to help the men gain control of their behavior, they utilize different approaches to treatment. To date, no one approach has been found to be more effective than the others. Thus, consideration should be given to all of the basic approaches in the development of standards for this newly emerging service.
Another area in which a crisis intervention model has been applied is in family preservation programs for child abuse victims and their families. These programs are designed with the main goal of keeping children in their own home with caretakers to whom they are attached when risk of placement has occurred. Placement risk usually involves child abuse or neglect, although such programs have also been employed with juvenile offenders and children with emotional disorders and their families. The program based on crisis intervention is called Homebuilders and was developed in 1974(Kinny & Dittmar, 1995,).
For mental health professionals, the dramatic increase in cases and in attention to the problem of sexual abuse has led to clinical specialization with child victim’s survivor of sexual abuse. The abused-focused therapy focused on the original abuse context as one of the key issues in treatment, relating this trauma to latter and current experiences and behavior. This perspective assumes that childhood abuse or neglect is relevant to a variety of child mental health problems and that therapeutic attention to this event will have a significant impact on current psychological functioning. (Briere, J. 1984). The effective therapeutic interventions for physical abusive and neglecting parents have also been developed by mental health professionals. Meanwhile, the crisis prevention institute (CPI) uses Nonviolent Crisis Intervention method. This program demonstrates how verbal de-escalation techniques of Nonviolent Crisis Intervention can be applied to young children. This Nonviolent Crisis Intervention program, was developed by the Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI), not only teaches staff to respond effectively to the warning signs that someone is beginning to lose control, but also addresses how staff can deal with their own stress, anxieties, and emotions when confronted with these challenging situations. CPI’s program is known worldwide for its innovative, holistic philosophy of providing Care, Welfare, Safety, and Security for staff and those in their care even during crisis moments. This program is now recognized by many as the international standard for violence prevention and intervention training.
Until recently, there was a dearth of research on the characteristics and treatment needs of incest offenders. This is due, in part to the prevailing societal view that incest offenders were incapable of change, a view which held that sexual abuse was ingrained in the personality of the offender and efforts to change would prove futile. However, mental health professionals are with increasing frequency, viewing many offenders as capable of change.
On the other hand, Christian school varies widely in their conservatism. Some schools have a distinctly fundamentalist orientation, replete with strict dress codes, while others are more relaxed; In contrast, the small number of publishers producing the curricula for a cross section of schools gives them an underlying similarity.
The discipline and corporal correction program of Christian school like Victory Christian School, this school is honored that you have asked their staff to assist you in training your children for Christian leadership. Their total program is designed to develop the spiritual and academic qualities that characterize your child. They appreciate your confidence in their program. To carry out your wishes for total character development, they believe it is necessary to follow Scriptural admonition to correct a child when his behavior is in violation of proper or reasonable rules and procedures. When warranted, corporal correction will be exercised under the following guidelines: First, the offense will be clearly discussed with your children; second, a reasonable number of firm strokes, not to exceed three, will be administered by a staff member of the same sex as your child, using a simple, flat paddle. Third, your child will not be physically restrained. (If he or she refuses to submit to paddling, you will be asked to come discuss the mater; and if it is believed to be in the best interest of the school, the child will be withdrawn from the school). (Victory Christian Academy Handbook)
The conduct of the Christian school, the Therapeutic Crisis Intervention (TCI) and Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI) has different goals, methods, and approaches.
Aguilera, D.C (1990) Crisis Intervention; Theory and Methodology, St. Louis, MO
Beck, A.T (1976) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders, New York:
International Universities Press p.318
Briere, J.(1984) The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse; Defining a post-
Sexual Abuse Syndrome, 3rd national conference of sexual victimization of
Children, Washington, DC.
Fischer, (1978) Growing Old In America, Oxford University Press, New York
Goldenberg, H (1983) Contemporary Clinical Psychology (2nd ed) Pacific Grove, CA
Kinney, J., Dittmar, K.(1995) Homebuilders; helping families help themselves, Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press.
Nagayama Hall, G.C.(1995)Sex Offender Recidivism Revisited: A meta-analysis of
Recent treatment studies, Journal of consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63.
Robert, A. R (2000) Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment , Treatment, and
Research Oxford New York, Oxford University Press
Victory Christian Academy Handbook, Victory Church, New Albany MS.